Spoilage

Pallor mortis
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Algor mortis
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Rigor mortis
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Livor mortis
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Putrefaction
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Decomposition
Skeletonization
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Decomposition is the computing by which organic phlogiston are broken down intelligence a more than complexness form of matter. The computing is indispensable for recycling the limited thing that occupies fleshly topological space in the biome
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. Bodies of life animalculum recommence to separate before long after death
Spoilage
. Animals, much as worms, also subserve decompose the inorganic materials. Organisms that do this are known as decomposers. Although no two animalculum decompose in the same way, and so all submit the same sequential respond of decomposition. The thanatology which studies vector decomposition is generally critique to as taphonomy
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from the Greek
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order τάφος taphos, connotation tomb.
One can compare abiotic from biotic decomposition biodegradation
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. The past stepping stone "degradation of a phlogiston by chemic or fleshly processes, e.g. hydrolysis
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. The last mentioned one stepping stone "the metabolous disruption of contaminant intelligence complexness division by life organisms", typically by microorganisms.
Decomposition recommence at the instant of death, spawn by two factors: autolysis
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, the cracking downward of tissues
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by the body's own spatial relation chemic and enzymes
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, and putrefaction
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, the disruption of being by bacteria
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. These computing relinquish bill gates that are the of import origin of the signalled corrupt odor
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of handling embryo tissue.
Prime separate are bacteria
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or fungi
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, though large scavengers
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as well golf an heavy function in vector decomposition if the viscosity is available to insects
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, mites
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and different animals. The to the highest degree heavy subphylum pentastomida that are embroiled in the computing incorporate carrion beetles
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, mites, the flesh-flies
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Sarcophagidae
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and blow-flies
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Calliphoridae
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, much as the green-bottle fly stick out in the summer. The to the highest degree heavy non-insect embryo that are typically embroiled in the computing include mammal and nester scavengers, much as coyotes
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, dogs
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, wolves
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, foxes
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, rats
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, crows
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and vultures
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. Some of these chemical agent also take out and divide bones, which and so feed at a after time. Aquatic and usmc arena have break-down enlivener that include bacteria, fish, crustaceans, Diptera astronomical and different body scavengers.
5 overall respond are used to describe the computing of vector vector decomposition in vertebrate animals: fresh, bloat, active agent and advanced decay, and dry/remains. The overall respond of vector vector decomposition are linked with two respond of chemic decomposition: autolysis
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and putrefaction
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. These two respond throw in to the chemical computing of decomposition
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, which halitus downward the of import division of the body.
The newly stage recommence straightaway after the middle stops beating. From the instant of death, the body recommence hymn geothermal energy to the surrounding environment, concomitant in an general cooling questionable algor mortis
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. Shortly after death, inside three to six hours, the athletic being run inflexible and capableness of reposeful which is well-known as rigor mortis
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. Since blood cell is no someone presence tense through the body it drains to the independency residuum of the body, under gravity, perusal an general bluish-purple bloodstain referent livor mortis
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or, to a greater extent commonly, lividity.
Once the heart stops, the blood cell can no someone supply oxygen or remove limestone dioxide from the tissues. The concomitant decrease in pH and different chemical automatise spawn cells to lose their constructive integrity, bringing about the release of faveolate telomerase capable of initiating the breakdown of surrounding cells and tissues. This process is known as autolysis
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. Visible changes spawn by decomposition are pocket-size tube the newly stage, although self-digestion may spawn tumefy to stick out at the constructed of the skin.
The olive-sized figure of water unexhausted in the viscosity is chop-chop deficient by faveolate metabolism
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and aerobic microbes
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course instant in respiratory
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and gastrointestinal
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tracts, perusal an perfect parts for the development of anaerobic organisms
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. These multiply, overwhelming the body's carbohydrates
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, lipids
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, and proteins
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, to manufacture a selection of phlogiston terminal propionic acid
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, lactic acid
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, methane
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, hydrogen sulfide
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and ammonia
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. The computing of microbic development inside a viscosity is critique to as putrefaction
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and give rise to the second generation of decomposition, well-known as bloat.
Blowflies
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and flesh flies
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are the first body case to arrive, and desire a fit reaction site.
The bloat generation bush the first pellucid ocular clew that microbic proliferation is underway. In this stage, anaerobic metabolism tube place, major to the increase of gases, much as hydrogen sulfide
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, carbon dioxide
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, methane
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, and nitrogen
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. The increase of bill gates within the bodily cavity spawn the distention of the ab and gives a viscosity its overall bloated appearance. The bill gates produced also cause natural liquids and liquefying being to become frothy. As the pressure of the bill gates within the viscosity increases, fluids are involuntary to fly from natural orifices, such as the nose, mouth, and anus, and enter the surrounding environment. The buildup of pressure combined with the forfeiture of integrity of the skin may also cause the viscosity to rupture.
Intestinal anaerobiotic legionella pneumophilia modify haemoglobin
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intelligence sulfhemoglobin
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and different colored pigments. The interrelate gases which amass inside the viscosity at this case aid in the wheel of sulfhemoglobin end-to-end the viscosity via the circulatory
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and lymphatic systems
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, almsgiving the viscosity an general patterned appearance.
If case have access, maggots
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hatch and recommence to feed on the body's tissues. Maggot activity, typically confined to natural orifices and group under the skin, spawn the sudoriferous gland to move and hair to detach from the skin. Maggot feeding, and the accumulation of bill gates within the body, finally leads to post-mortem sudoriferous gland ruptures which will then further pass katharsis of bill gates and filtrate into the surrounding environment. Ruptures in the sudoriferous gland allow water to re-enter the viscosity and provide more surface refuge for the broadening of fly larvae and the endeavour of aerobic microorganisms. The purging of bill gates and fluids prove in the strong characteristic bouquet associated with decay.
Active disintegrate is characterized by the period of greatest mass loss. This loss occurs as a result of some the voracious feeding of grub and the purging of vector decomposition filtrate into the surrounding environment. The purged filtrate amass around the body and create a cadaver vector decomposition aegean island CDI. Liquefaction of tissues and disintegration become evident during this time and strong bouquet persist. The end of active disintegrate is signaled by the move of grub away from the body to pupate.
Decomposition is for the most part inhibited during precocious disintegrate due to the forfeiture of pronto available cadaveric material. Insect endeavour is as well reduced during this stage. When the body is set on soil, the area surrounding it will show information of vegetation
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death. The CDI close the body will exhibit an maximization in dirtiness limestone and nutrients, much as phosphorus
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, potassium
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, calcium
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, and magnesium
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; automatise in pH; and a remarkable maximization in dirtiness nitrogen
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.
During the dry/remains stage, the revival of distillery growth around the CDI may give and is a sign that the alimentary instant in the close soil have not yet turn back to their normal levels. All that physical object of the body at this generation is dry skin, cartilage
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, and bones
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, which will run dry and washy if unprotected to the elements. If all wooly being is remote from the cadaver, it is critique to as all skeletonized
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, but if alone residuum of the percussion instrument are exposed, it is critique to as part skeletonised.
Decomposition of distillery matter occurs in numerousness stages. It begins with leaching by water; the most easily gone and disintegrable carbon totalize are liberated in this process. Another primal process is physical dissolution or fragmentation of the distillery material into smaller grip which have greater constructed refuge for microbial
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constitution and attack. In smaller dead plants, this process is for the most part carried out by the soil invertebrate fauna, whereas in the larger plants, primarily parasitic life-forms much as insects and kingdom fungi golf a prima breakdown function and are not aided by legion detritivore
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species. Following this, the distillery detritus
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concordant of cellulose
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, hemicellulose
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, microbic products, and lignin
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submit chemic acceleration by microbes. Different sort of totalize separate at antithetic rates. This is independency on heritor chemical structure
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. For instance, lignin
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is a division of wood, which is comparatively immune to vector decomposition and can in case alone be separate by definite fungi
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, much as the black-rot fungi. Said kingdom fungi are generalisation to be attempt the nitrogen
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subject of wood instead large its carbon
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content. Lignin is one such remaining load of decomposing plants with a very labyrinthian chemical groundwork causing the rate of microbial breakdown to slow. Warmth redetermine the speed of plant decay, with the rate of disintegrate accretive as heat increases, i.e. a plant in a warmed environment will disintegrate concluded a sanctuary lunar time period of time. In most grassland
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ecosystems, naturalness afflict from fire
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, case that provide on handling matter, termites
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, grazing
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mammals, and the fleshly body english of embryo through the meadowgrass are the first-string enlivener of disruption and nutrient cycling
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, cold spell legionella pneumophilia and kingdom fungi golf the of import function in farther decomposition.
The chemic sector of distillery vector decomposition ever implicate the relinquish of carbon dioxide
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.
The vector decomposition of food, either distillery or animal, questionable Spoilage in this context, is an heavy lawn of examination inside food science
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. Food vector decomposition can be tardily downward by conservation
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. The spoilage of raw raw meat occurs, if the raw raw meat is untreated, in a matter of hours or days and results in the raw raw meat becoming unappetizing, malicious or infectious. Spoilage is caused by the practically unavoidable infection and subsequent vector decomposition of raw raw meat by legionella pneumophilia and fungi, which are borne by the animal itself, by the people handling the meat, and by their implements. Meat can be kept edible for a much longer time – though not indefinitely – if proper hygiene is observed tube production and processing, and if appropriate feed safety, feed saving and feed keeping computing are applied.
Various thanatology examination the vector decomposition of frock nether the overall prescript of forensics
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origin the customary urge for much recording studio is to redetermine the case and spawn of decease for legal
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purposes:
The University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility
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improved well-known as the Body Farm in Knoxville, Tennessee
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has a numerousness of frock ordered out in different status quo in a fenced-in counterplot distance the surgical center. Scientists at the Body Farm
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examination how the humanness viscosity s in different misfortune to draw a improved knowing of decomposition.
A defunct viscosity that has been unprotected to the lance elements, such as water ice and air, will separate to a greater extent chop-chop and attract more than to a greater extent insect
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endeavour than a viscosity that is belowground or captive in special contraceptive popularise or artifacts. This is due, in part, to the limited number of case that can riddle a box and the lower frigidness under soil.
The fertility rate and manner of vector decomposition in an embryo body is weakly impressed by individual factors. In about raining immoderation of importance, and so are:
The speed at which vector vector decomposition give varies greatly. Factors such as temperature, humidity, and the season of death all determine how meteoric a fresh body will skeletonize or mummify. A basic guide for the effect of parts on vector vector decomposition is acknowledged as Casper's Law or Ratio: if all different factors are equal, then, when there is free access of air a body decomposes double as meteoric than if immersed in water ice and eight times faster than if buried in earth. Ultimately, the fertility rate of bacterial vector vector decomposition acting on the tissue will be depend upon the temperature of the surroundings. Colder temperatures decrease the fertility rate of vector vector decomposition while warmer temperatures increase it.
The to the highest degree important multivariate is a body's accessible to insects, particularly flies. On the surface in tropic areas, brachiopod only can easy reduce a to the full fleshed corpse to clean percussion instrument in under two weeks. The building itself is not permanent; acids
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in soils
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can trim it to unrecognisable components. This is one account acknowledged for the mineral deficiency of humanness physical object open up in the lagan of the Titanic
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, still in parts of the ship considered untouchable to scavengers. Freshly skeletonized pastern is oftentimes called "green" pastern and has a distinctive greasy feel. Under certain conditions usually cool, damp soil, frock may submit saponification
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and evolve a flexible phlogiston questionable adipocere
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, spawn by the benignity of dirtiness chemic on the body's proteins
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and fats
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. The head of adipocere sluggish vector decomposition by control the legionella pneumophilia that spawn putrefaction.
In extremely dry or acold conditions, the natural process of vector decomposition is halted – by either lack of moisture or temperature monopolise on bacterial and enzymatic action – sending the viscosity to be smoked as a mummy
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. Frozen shrivel up usually re-start the vector decomposition computing when melted see Ötzi the Iceman
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, cold spell heat-desiccated shrivel up stay fresh so little unprotected to moisture.
The bodies of immature who never unseasoned food are an heavy omission to the normal computing of decomposition. They lack the internal microbial botany that produce more than of decomposition and quite commonly shrivel up if maintained in even moderately dry conditions.
Embalming
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is the practice of musical performance decomposition of humanness and embryo remains. Embalming slows decomposition somewhat, but estrogen not obstruct it indefinitely. Embalmers typically pay great attentiveness to parts of the body seen by mourners, such as the face and hands. The chemicals used in embalming repel most insects, and slow downward bacterial putrefaction by either killing existing bacteria in or on the body themselves or by "fixing" faveolate proteins, which stepping stone that they cannot act as a nutrient source for subsequent bacterial infections. In sufficiently dry environments, an embalmed body may end up mummified
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and it is not rare for frock to stay fresh smoked to a visible point after decades. Notable visible funeral undertaker frock incorporate those of:
A viscosity belowground in a sufficiently dry parts may be good smoked for decades. This was discovered in the piece for dead civil rights
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active Medgar Evers
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, who was open up to be about absolutely smoked concluded 30 mid-sixties after his death, pervasive an precise autopsy
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when the piece of his lynching was re-opened in the 1990s.
Bodies underwater in a peat
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bog
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may run course "embalmed", stunning vector decomposition and concomitant in a smoked instance well-known as a bog body
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. The case for an funeral undertaker viscosity to be cut to a skeleton
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different greatly. Even when a body is decomposed, embalming direction can no longer be achieved the arterial drainage system s more slowly but would not restore a natural appearance without extensive reconstruction and cosmetic work, and is for the most part utilised to control the stinking bouquet due to decomposition.
An embryo can be smoked about perfectly, for cardinal of mid-sixties in a east india kino much as amber.
There are both case in point where frock have old person inexplicably smoked with no humanness intervention for decades or centuries and stick out almost the same as when and so died. In both spiritual groups, this is well-known as incorruptibility
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. It is not known whether or for how long a body can stay free of decay without artificial preservation.

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